Our heart is one of the most important organs in the human body. One of the main functions of the heart is to pump blood throughout the body. The pumped blood will carry a supply of oxygen that will circulate through the blood vessels around all parts of the body. The importance of this organs has become a staple of all living being as without this organ to operate in the best optimal way, it can lead to death as there are no way living beings life without heart as the main organs
But because of several factors such as heredity, age, or an unhealthy lifestyle, the heart experiences various kinds of problems from Heart attack to heart related diseases. The heart itself has various parts that work by having their respective functions. But it supports each other by working in a unity so that if there is a slight problem in the performance of the heart, it will have a fatal impact on the health of the whole body. And the most deadly impact it can give is death.
One of the most deadly Heart disease is a type of coronary heart disease. A person can get coronary heart disease when the blood supply that carries a lot of oxygen content flows to the heart muscle is blocked by plaque in the heart blood vessels or commonly referred to as coronary arteries. People who are afflicted with this disease will need to undergo serious surgery which is known as heart bypass surgery.
Additionally, there is a condition called atherosclerosis that occurs in the walls of arteries, which is where cholesterol and other substances, for example, calcium and fibrin, accumulate and then form a blockage, also called plaque, in the arteries. The plaque can already form on the arterial wall even when someone is young. So this dangerous coronary heart disease can also afflict anyone including those who are still young. Even more dangerous is the increasing age of a person, the level of risk of getting plaque will also be higher. Worse, if you don’t get the plaque treatment immediately it can cause a decrease in the elasticity of the arteries which then disrupt the smooth flow of the bloodstream.
There are some that cause a person to get coronary heart disease. Some of them are total cholesterol levels and also high LDL. Then low HDL cholesterol combined with high blood pressure or commonly referred to as hypertension. Smoking habits also contribute to the biggest cause in making a coronary heart attack. Diabetes Mellitus can also be the beginning of a coronary heart attack. Obesity and family history of cardiovascular disease factors play a major role in triggering. If one family member has had a coronary heart attack, it is likely that the entire family has the potential to get a similar disease. Today’s increasingly instant life makes people lazy to move, especially exercise. Even though exercise is very important in the health of the body and facilitate blood circulation in the human body. Increasingly high life pressures not only cause stress and severe depression, but also have a direct impact on coronary heart disease.
If the above factors are present in your life, you should be advised to check your heart health regularly with experts because with the presence of two or more factors, it will increase the total risk of coronary heart disease and Heart attack symptoms. Of course, if there are problem in our heart, humanity have develop technology to cure or alleviate it. One of them is heart bypass surgery which is often used for people with heart disease. But what is heart bypass surgery? Here are some of the explanation to give you more insight about this perfectly complex surgery.
What is Heart Bypass Surgery?
Bypass surgery is known to be common in various types of organs. One of them is the heart organ. Briefly, heart bypass surgery is an action to overcome a problem that occurs due to blockage or narrowing of the coronary arteries. Because it is associated with a problem with arteries, the heart bypass surgery is performed for patients with coronary heart disease. This operation is done usually in Heart hospital by utilizing all the blood vessels connected from other body organs as a shortcut to drain blood to the heart muscle. Other than this surgery there are Heart valve replacement that can be done in heart hospitals.
Another definition says that heart bypass surgery is a procedure for dealing with coronary heart disease which aims to restore the performance of blood flow to the coronary arteries which had been blocked so that they become normal again by making a new channel taken from a new patient’s blood vessels. So this bypass operation is only responsible for making a new channel that can be passed by a supply of oxygen-containing blood.
The new channel is made of arteries and good blood vessels that are trapped from other parts of the body that are still healthy and not blocked. Then after being taken, the new blood vessel is clamped to the coronary artery which had experienced a blockage and also narrowing.
When Should You Choose a Heart bypass surgery?
Then a question arises, can all patients suffering from coronary heart disease get a bypass heart surgery procedure? Not all coronary heart disease requires bypass surgery. Only a certain number of patients are eligible who can follow bypass heart surgery. Like patients who have been able to change the behavior of healthy living and have been doing therapy with drugs that use high levels of doses. The purpose of this heart bypass surgery is to increase blood flow in the arteries in the heart organ and also to relieve chest pain on the left as an effect of narrowing of the arteries.
The implementation of heart bypass surgery is quite complex if compared with other types of surgery that we usually see, additionally, it also cannot be done carelessly. This surgery can be only done if there is already a lot of narrowing and blockage of blood vessels in the arterial tract which usually this procedure will take from three to six hours. Additionally, this surgery will also need permission from the family member in order to be done properly.
Then there are other indications that appear as more than one narrowing of the arteries. This will cause the left heart chambers not to function normally like the left heart chamber in general. The left heart chamber is one of the heart chambers that pumps blood from the heart throughout the body. Furthermore, the main left artery or the term is also called the left main artery, which had the task of supplying blood to the left ventricle, also experiencing narrowing and blockage that is in a severe level.
One treatment for blockage of arteries is the installation of a ring. However, if the installation of the ring is considered unsuccessful, then the steps taken are action by using a bypass heart surgery procedure. Then coronary heart disease patients often feel very severe and sustained chest pain, so it is very necessary to do bypass heart surgery as a follow-up treatment.
Heart bypass surgery is not recommended for patients with coronary heart disease who do not have symptoms that are still at a mild risk level of having a heart attack. It is also not recommended for elderly patients, especially those over the age of 85 because it will have a much higher impact on postoperative complications. In addition to the elderly it is also not recommended for patients who have just had a heart attack and stroke, clotting disorders in the blood, had received radiotherapy in the chest area or had surgery on the chest area before, then had a history of COPD and were infected or electrolyte disorders. All of that will also have a significant impact on the occurrence of postoperative complications.
General Heart Bypass Surgery Procedure
Like surgery in general, the surgeon will usually ask patients to make some preparations that must be done to reduce the negative effects that can arise both during and after surgery. For heart bypass surgery, doctors will usually give instructions to patients to reduce or even stop certain types of activities that are considered dangerous to do before surgery, then there are some dietary patterns and types of food that must be strictly regulated and adhered to such as only consuming types healthy food types. After that patients with heart bypass surgery will also usually be given several types of drugs that must be taken before the heart bypass surgery takes place.
As part of the preparation for heart bypass surgery, the surgeon will also give instructions to the patient regarding a number of activities that may not be carried out, healthy eating patterns and types of food, and medicines that must be consumed before the operation takes place. Furthermore, patients will also take a series of preliminary tests before surgery, usually in the form of chest x-rays, blood tests, then electrocardiography, and cardiac catheterization.
In performing a heart bypass surgery procedure there are several steps and rules that must be fulfilled to obtain maximum operating results. Usually heart bypass surgery lasts for 3 – 6 hours and the patient will be given anesthesia or general anesthesia so that during surgery the patient will not be aware.
The first action taken is that the surgeon will check the heart rate, blood pressure, oxygen levels in the patient’s body. In addition, the patient’s respiratory system will also be checked. As a capital of action and safety of patients who will be operated on by heart bypass. After that, the respiratory hose will be installed which is placed through the throat. This hose will later be connected to a ventilator or respiratory aids to provide oxygen level intake which is later needed by patients with heart bypass surgery.
Then the heart surgeon will make an incision along the center of the chest cavity and also divide the chest bone which normally functions to help protect the heart. Continuing the patient will be given drugs which function to temporarily stop the work of the heart. After the heart stops temporarily, the blood vessels will be connected to the machine with the heart lung machine to replace the work of the heart that was paused and also helps maintain the blood supply throughout the body.
Then the doctor will do a graft, or a blood vessel from another part of the body, which is usually taken from a vein in the thigh or an artery around the chest cavity, then from a large artery or aorta to an artery coronary. This means that the doctor makes a new channel to drain the blood that previously could not flow because of a blockage. This is a procedure to form a new pathway that does not pass through the arteries that were blocked.
After a lengthy process of making a blood vessel graft with arterial blood vessels completed, the surgeon will conduct an electric shock to make the heart beat again. This electric heart shock technique is not always used to make the heart beat again.
After the Heart conditions has pulsed afterwards, the surgeon will reunite the breastbone with a special wire which will last permanently stick to the breastbone. Close the incision in the skin by doing stitches. For a hose that serves to help the patient breathe during a heart bypass surgery, it has not been released until the patient can truly breathe normally.
The technique above is also called conventional technique. There are also other techniques called non-conventional techniques. There are also other techniques that use the latest technology called MICS CABG technology, with this technology the surgeon will eliminate the cleavage in the chest. This technology is very suitable for patients who are afraid of heart bypass surgery. The surgeon will only do three small incisions in the chest area. But even so the results obtained will be relatively the same. The effect of the patient will feel much better because the recovery will certainly make it faster and breathing will also be lighter because there is no division in the sternum.
Risks That Can Occur After Heart Bypass Surgery
There are several risks that must be borne by some patients with heart bypass surgery as well as other operations. A small percentage of heart bypass surgery patients even fail to survive. The death rate that occurs is less than one percent in patients who are under 65 years and in good health. But it will be even more severe in elderly patients and patients who have heart with severe damage, then in diabetes, or undergo heart surgery such as Heart transplant in the previous time.
During the process of cardiac bypass surgery the surgeon will temporarily stop the heart rate causing a number of complications to a very severe degree. From a data source from a report in United States of America University Journal of Cardiology, there were about 3 percent of patients who could have had a stroke during the operation. While the other 3 percent will lose the power of mental acuity. Then a study in 2016 at the Duke University Medical Center also found the occurrence of kidney damage after increased heart bypass surgery. Researchers from Duke also analyzed about 5 million people who were discharged from the hospital and found an increase in the number of kidney failure as much as five times during the study period. They still estimate there are about twenty thousand cases that can occur every year. Complications mainly occur in older patients and also have a history of diabetes mellitus, hypertension or high blood pressure, unstable angina, arrhythmia, heart failure or also previously had a heart bypass surgery.
To reduce the risk of bad post-cardiac bypass surgery, in recent years more surgeons have preferred off-pump surgery. In contrast to bypass surgery, this off-pump surgery technique is carried out with the heart still beating during an arterial artery duct graft procession. This is said to reduce the risk of kidney damage and also severe bleeding which is fatal. But the American Heart Association notes that both techniques can still provide perfect results and say if large-scale trials are needed to determine which operating procedures are far better.
The thing to remember is that heart bypass surgery is not a drug that will completely cure and eliminate coronary heart attacks. Therefore if the patient does not take other steps to control the buildup of plaque in the arteries, the results of the graft that was placed during a previous heart bypass surgery can suffer the same fate of experiencing narrowing. A vein bypass can be blocked by plaque for a long period of time, 10 years. Arterial bypass is now more often used for surgery and is transplanted because it is said that arterial vessels are less often blocked after a 10-year period.
There are several Heart disease facts and after effects that can be felt by patients who have just undergone heart bypass surgery. Among them are high fever and bleeding and pain. To reduce this risk, patients are expected to routinely control the scars of surgery to the hospital. Stroke can also occur in patients after heart bypass surgery. For this risk, of course, requires special treatment and the severity of a possible heart attack that causes death.
Then a finding said that women tended to have smaller arteries compared to men. So from that surgery on female patients will be much more difficult. But as long as this female patient still experiences menstrual cycles regularly, the risk of returning to a coronary heart attack will be at a lower limit.
Some patients even experience a blockage again only after the post operation lasts only two weeks. This blood clotting occurs because the blood escapes from the arteries into the arteries that have been grafted.
Recovery after Heart Bypass Surgery
After performing a heart bypass surgery there are a number of procedures that still need to be done so that they can improve and get maximum results. Of course sufferers of coronary heart disease do not want the disease to recur, the most basic thing that must be fulfilled is to change the lifestyle to be healthier. Avoid factors that can cause coronary heart disease. Because the opportunity was much higher compared to people who had never been exposed to coronary heart disease before.
Then the surgeon will usually make a number of notes addressed to patients after heart bypass surgery that must be performed at home to deal with the effects mentioned above and speed up postoperative recovery. Note that it is usually about how to dress that must avoid the type of clothing that is tight or that can suppress the incision scar during surgery.
Then avoid taking a bath by soaking during the recovery period because it will also affect the postoperative incision scar. One of the effects that will be felt by patients after cardiac bypass surgery is difficulty sleeping soundly because they feel pain in the operating area. To overcome this, patients will usually be given painkillers that doctors prescribe to take 30 minutes before going to bed. Avoid several types of drinks such as coffee, soda, and tea. It is also recommended to maintain a diet by consuming food in small portions but often. Because usually patients in the recovery period will lose all their appetite.
In the end, heart bypass surgery is something that are pretty rare but also quite difficult to do. Therefore, in order to avoid it at all, it is a good idea to make sure that you know how to avoid heart related disease that can lead to this surgery. It is a good idea to start living in a Heart healthy lifestyle and also have Heart healthy eating in order to avoid this surgery. Even if by any chance that you will have to do the surgery, there are several precaution and prerequisites to take in order for the patient to be able to do this surgery. We hope that some of these information can prove to be useful in giving you information regarding heart bypass surgery.