Heart attack is one of the major diseases that many people are afraid of and become a menacing thing for almost every people in this world. This disease has a unique medical term which is called or known as the coronary heart disease. This disease is a condition that occurs when the main blood vessels inside human body that supply blood to the heart (also known as coronary arteries) are broken or damaged. Many piles of cholesterol in the blood vessels which lead to the inflammation process is suspected to be the cause of this disease in human body.
Additionally, when there is a buildup of cholesterol inside human body and blood vessel (which is known as plaque), coronary blood vessels will be narrowing so that the flow of blood and also oxygen supply to the heart rate zones will be restricted and hampered. Lack of blood flow will also cause pain in the chest which in medical terms is known as angina with some symptoms of breath shortness. These symptoms then will lead to a final moment of total obstruction in blood flow to the heart which is known and called as heart attack.
Coronary heart disease or heart disease is one of the highest causes of death in the world. According to some researches from The World Heart Federation, it is estimated that the death rate from the coronary heart disease alone in Southeast Asia has reach for more than 2 million cases in the year of 2017 alone. In the world itself in 2017 there were recorded at least hundred millions of people diagnosed with this heart related disease in the world with the majority of patients aged 55-64 years. The death rate from heart disease is also quite high, which is about 20 percent of all deaths in the world.
With all of these information regarding this disease, it is a good and wise idea to know more about the diseases in a more detailed manners. By knowing the diseases itself, we as a human being can avoid or make sure that we does not get afflicted by this diseases in the slightest. Of course, it is quite hard to avoid this kinds of diseases if we do not know it symptoms and cause. Therefore, we will try to give you some information regarding this diseases starting with the causes and then delve deeper into it to make sure all of you can get the information that you need.
Causes of Coronary Heart Disease
First of all let us talk about the diseases and what causes it. Coronary heart disease is occurring when the blood supply to the heart through the coronary blood vessels is filled with fat. The accumulation of fat inside the blood vessels is known as atherosclerosis and this condition is well known as the major cause of coronary heart disease. The fat itself usually are accumulated because the person are eating too much or coming from obese people that never done any exercise to maintain their body weight and condition.
Additionally, there are another effect for people who are having too much fat. This condition will also reducing the blood supply to the heart, which previously known as atherosclerosis can also cause the formation of blood clots. If these conditions are met, the blood flow to the heart will be totally blocked and a heart attack will occurs to the person. There are several factors that can trigger atherosclerosis which is the main cause of heart attack and that include high cholesterol due to uncontrollable diet, too many smoking, having a diabetes condition, and finally having a high blood pressure which is also known as hypertension. Which is why it is important to have a heart healthy diet.
Types and Complications of Coronary Heart Disease
Moving on from the causes of the diseases we now will begin to talk about the complication and types of the diseases. Yes, you read it right, coronary heart disease is divided into two types of diseases. And these two types are categorized by the level of blood flow inhibition inside human body, which is also known as angina or chest pain and heart attack.
Usually, untreated heart disease will lead to highly deadly complications which are not good for us. When the heart inside our body is not receiving enough blood supply to be too weak to pump blood, the heart’s performance will decrease. This type of heart attack symptoms can make the fluid that are accumulated inside the lungs become a new problem where the patients will have trouble breathing. This type of case is also known as heart failure in medical terms. What makes it dangerous is that these complications can occur suddenly or gradually. Which means it can come slightly and also instantly without any caution and this is very dangerous in many level.
Diagnosis of Coronary Heart Disease
Another thing to be known of is the diagnosis or of the diseases. There are multiple stages of diagnosis but if you want to know more about it then you need to know it from the early stages of the diseases. In the early stages, doctors will usually ask about symptoms that you may getting, the family health history, and eating habit you have with your lifestyle. If you think that you have heart disease, your doctor may recommend you to undergo multiple checks that can help to confirm the diagnosis. Several of the check that usually done in order to diagnose if a person afflicted by heart related diseases are blood tests, X-rays, electrocardiogram which is known as EKG, coronary angiography, MRI scan and CT scan.
Treatment for Coronary Heart Disease
After the check are done and it is positive that you have heart disease, you are strongly recommended and encouraged to change your usual lifestyle. This ranges from maintaining your diet menu, starting to do regular exercise, taking specialized medication regularly and as directed by your physician. Additionally people who are smoking will also need to quit their smoking habit. With all of the treatment it is quite sad that coronary heart disease cannot be cured, fortunately this diseases can be prevented from getting worse. If the stage of the diseases are quite high then the doctor will advise surgery solution to deal with the disease if it is necessary. The goal in the treatment of this heart disease is to control symptoms in order to reduce the risk of fatal results such as heart attacks.
Prevention of Coronary Heart Disease
If you want to know more about the prevention of this diseases then we will share several of them. All of these prevention features is quite simple and not really hard to do. However, dedication and also discipline is needed in order to make sure that all of these prevention can work well. Many people have a hard time to change their habit and lifestyle. However, it is quite important as it will help you to avoid the heart related diseases which is quite dangerous. Without further ado, here are some simple precautions to avoid heart disease or healthy heart tips, namely:
- Quit smoking. Yes, the first one of the prevention is quite simple, all you need to do is to quit smoking. This is however, is not that simple if you are a chain smoker. Fortunately, there are several things that you can do in order to quit your smoking habit. Try to start this prevention method by using step by step method. Which means you need to minimize the smoking habit. Start by cutting your smoking habit by half, then moving forward until you stop smoking completely. This will be easier to do than trying to stop smoking completely in one start which is possible but also harder to do.
- Applying a healthy lifestyle in your life, such as reducing high cholesterol foods, increase the consumption of fruits and vegetables, and exercise regularly. These steps are much easier to do. However, one of the main problem of many people are they do not have the time to do it properly. Therefore, you need time management to do exercise and cook heart healthy recipes. Doing this steps will not only help you to avoid the heart related diseases but also will help you healthier in general.
- Controlling blood sugar levels. For diabetic people, controlling blood sugar level is important and a must. You can try to do this by eating food that have low sugar or non-sugar value.
- Maintain a healthy weight, this can be done by having regular exercise, try to limit the diet menu and eating less junk food and more vegetables which can be done by cooking heart healthy foods.
- Reduce alcohol consumption. Most people can do this, however for some addict, it is a good idea to join some alcohol prevention club and finding companion that can help you to cope from alcohol addiction and stop drinking alcohol entirely in order to get healthy heart.
Symptoms of heart disease symptoms you need to know
After we know about heart disease and heart attack in general it is time to start delve deeper into the diseases in order to know more about it. Yes, what is better to know your enemy closer in order to know how to avoid it entirely right? First of all Coronary heart disease is divided into two types that are categorized by the level of blockage of blood flow to the heart. Both types include:
This condition is interesting enough to be discussed because not everyone knows this. In addition, angina is also known as chest pain. Angina is a chest pain that arises due to reduced blood supply to the heart muscle due to constriction of blood vessels. A person suffering from angina is at higher risk for heart attacks than those who do not suffer from angina.
These attacks usually last a few minutes and are triggered by physical activity or stress. The types of illness vary. Some feel spread around the chest, heavy as crushed, or tightness. In addition to chest pain, one can also feel shortness of breath, nausea, fatigue, dizziness and anxiety when angina attacks.
Angina can be divided into two different types of angina depends on their symptoms, the two groups are known as stable angina and unstable angina.
- Stable Angina (angina pectoris)
Stable angina is a type of angina attack that occurs when the heart is required to work harder, for example during heavy activity. This attack can be treated with medication and rest. Stable angina attacks are not life-threatening, but they must be wary of them.
- Unstable angina
While unstable angina is an attack of angina that attacks suddenly and without obvious cause. This attack can take place even if the patient is relaxed or rested and cannot always be treated with medication.
Unstable angina attacks require emergency medical treatment because it indicates that patients experience heart function that decreases dramatically. If after a second dose of angina medicine chest still hurts, immediately go to the nearest hospital.
Other than the angina there are also heart attack. Heart attacks usually occur when blood flow to the heart is completely blocked. Symptoms can be diverse, but the pain in heart attacks is almost the same as angina, only often worse. Medical treatment within minutes is necessary because these attacks can damage the heart muscle permanently.
Some of the symptoms of heart attack are severe chest pain, difficulty breathing, feeling weak, dizzy, and panic. The chest pain can also spread to the neck to the jaw, to the left arm, and to the back.
But keep in mind that not all heart attack patients experience severe chest pain. Indication of heart attack is not determined by the severity of chest pain, but rather from a combination of perceived symptoms.
Untreated heart disease will lead to deadly complications. When not receiving the blood supply to be too weak to pump blood, the heart’s performance will decrease. This condition is called heart failure. These complications can occur suddenly or gradually. Given the condition of heart failure, other organs such as the kidneys and lungs will also be affected over time.
Causes of Heart Disease
The main cause of coronary heart disease is the accumulation of fat in the artery (arteroma) in the artery or medical term is called atherosclerosis. Arteromas consist of cholesterol and other waste matter. In addition to reducing blood supply to the heart, atherosclerosis can also trigger the formation of thrombosis or blood clots. This blood clot blocks the blood supply to the heart so the risk of suffering a heart attack is higher. There are several factors that can increase the risk of heart disease, namely:
Smokers have a higher risk of developing heart disease. Carbon monoxide in cigarette smoke and nicotine content in cigarettes can increase the risk of blood clots and spur the heart to work faster and burden the heart. Other chemical compounds from cigarette smoke can also damage the walls of the heart arteries that will trigger the occurrence of narrowing. People who smoke usually have a 25 % higher risk of being afflicted by heart disease than those who do not smoke at all.
Bad Pattern of Life
The risk of heart disease can also increase due to unhealthy lifestyles. For example, lack of exercise, frequent eating fatty foods, and rarely eat fruits and vegetables. Due to this reason it is important for people to watch and monitor their eating habits in order to get a nutrition for heart health that can help make our heart healthy and body stronger and of course have a heart healthy activities to make your heart healthier.
High Cholesterol Levels
Another causes that is most well-known is cholesterol. Cholesterol itself is divided into two types, namely good cholesterol (HDL) and bad cholesterol (LDL). Bad cholesterol easily clumps and attaches to the blood vessel wall. Therefore, high LDL levels can form plaques that cause atherosclerosis. Normal levels of LDL in the blood are below 3 mmol / L or 115 mg / dl for adults and 2 mmol / L or 77mg / dl for people at high risk. In order to prevent this you can try to eat more heart healthy vegetables that can help to lower your cholesterol level.
Hypertension is one of the most common cause of the heart related diseases in the decade. You will be considered hypertensive or high blood pressure if your blood pressure is above 140/90 mmHg. While the normal average blood pressure is 120/80 mm Hg. High blood pressure means the heart works harder so that the heart and blood vessels will be more burdened. One of the factors that triggers hypertension is the consumption of foods with high salt levels.
Another well-known cause that can trigger heart related diseases is diabetes diseases. Diabetes can cause thickening of blood vessel walls, potentially inhibiting blood flow. Therefore, diabetics have a higher risk for heart disease. This means that diabetes as a diseases can trigger heart attack or diseases which is very dangerous because it will be a complex complication disease.
People who are overweight or obese have the potential for high blood pressure, tend to have higher cholesterol levels, and more at risk of type 2 diabetes. Therefore, they also have a higher risk for heart disease. Exercise and also doing some heart healthy habits can help to lower your weight so it will not categorized as obesity.
The older the age of a person, the higher the risk for heart disease. This is because the blood vessels, especially the arteries will tend to be more rigid and lose their elastic power with age.
In general, coronary heart disease affects more men than women. However, over the age of 50 years, men and women have the same risk for this disease.
Family Health History
If you have a nuclear family such as your father, mother, sister, or older brother with heart disease, your risk for heart disease will be higher than that of people with no history of heart disease in their family.
Diagnosis of Heart Disease
As a first step in diagnosis, doctors will usually ask about symptoms, lifestyle, and family health history, have you done heart healthy eating and check your cholesterol levels. If your doctor suspects you have heart disease due to the lack of heart healthy lifestyle, there are some checks you will undergo to confirm the diagnosis as described below.
There are two types of blood tests that are generally performed, namely the test cholesterol levels in the blood and the examination of cardiac enzymes. In the cholesterol test, you will be asked to fast at least 12 hours before the examination so that the results obtained more accurate.
As a complement to checking cholesterol levels, a series of blood tests are also needed to monitor the work of the heart, including the examination of cardiac enzymes to see any damage to the muscle of the organ.
The electrical activity of the heart muscle can be checked through an electrocardiogram (EKG). But this examination alone is not enough to determine whether you have heart disease or not. Abnormal EKG results may indicate that the heart muscle is not receiving enough oxygen.
In addition to sleeping position, an ECG examination is also done when the patient’s heart is triggered by running on a treadmill. This test is called a stress test exercise or a treadmill test or pedal a static bike. This examination is important for detecting symptoms of angina.
An examination similar to ultrasound is used to look at the structure, thickness and motion of each heartbeat to form a detailed heart image. This test also checks the heart’s performance level.
The doctor may suggest a chest X-ray examination to see the condition of the heart, lungs, and chest wall in general. In this examination, will be seen when the heart is enlarged, or if there is accumulation of fluid in the lungs. This examination can also be used to rule out other possible illnesses.
Coronary angiography or cardiac catheterization
This examination is carried out with the application of local anesthesia. Cardiac catheterization procedures include:
- Insert the catheter up to the heart artery through the foot or groin.
- Injection of ink into the heart artery through a catheter.
The purpose of this coronary angiography procedure is to examine the presence and severity of the narrowing in the heart’s blood vessels and to examine the pressure inside the heart chambers.
CT and MRI scans
After having check-up, you’re able to know whether your heart is in problem or not. If your heart is in trouble, don’t panic. You need to ask some suggestions from the expert. In this case, the doctor will give you some trusted suggestions that can help you to fix the problem. Actually, it’s really easy since, some of information stated before are really important for you. Fixing heart attack is complicated. It needs time and effort to change your whole life to be better than before.
Lifestyle and medication are the key for you to have a healthy heart. Besides, avoiding some bad habits for example, smoking are really important too. Dangerous substances contained on cigarette are really dangerous and can cause any bad things that can harm yourself. For the final word, you need to realize that heart attack is considered as one of the biggest fatal disease that people have nowadays. The key to keep your health is really simple, having a healthy lifestyle and be positive!